Identify Two Basic And Two Acid Radicals From The Given Salt Mixture

Identify Two Basic And Two Acid Radicals From The Given Salt Mixture
Identify Two Basic And Two Acid Radicals From The Given Salt Mixture

Identify Two Basic And Two Acid Radicals From The Given Salt Mixture. This practical salt analysis is in the 11th, 12th, and BSC chemistry syllabi. This is a very important practical and also a bit difficult because patience is very important in this practice.
The test of acidic radicals is not as complicated as the testing of alkaline radicals because in alkaline radicals a sequential test has to be done.
There are 6 groups and each group has a group reagent by which precipitate is formed. The formation of precipitate in any group shows the presence of the group.

Identify Two Basic And Two Acid Radicals From The Given Salt Mixture

Acidic Radicals

For the purpose of analysis, acidic radicals are divided into three groups-

First Group CO3(Carbonate),NO2(Nitrite),S(Sulphide),SO3(Sulfite),CH3COO(Acetate),S2O3(Thio Sulphate)

Second Group NO3(Nitrate),Cl(Chloride),Br(Bromide),I(Iodide),C2O4(Oxalate),F(Flouride),[Fe(CN)6]—-(Ferrocyanide)

Third Group PO4(Phosphate),SO4(Sulphate),BO3(Borate)

Basic Radicals

For the purpose of analysis, Basic radicals are divided into 6 groups-

Zero Group NH4+(Ammonium Ion)|

First Group Ag+(Silver),Pb++(Lead),Hg2++(mercurous )|

Second Group Hg++(Mercuric),Pb++(Lead),Bi+++(Bismuth),Cu++(Copper),Cd++(Cadmium),Sn++(Stanus Tin),Sn++++(Stanic Tin),As+++(Arsenic) And Sb+++(Antimony)

Third Group Fe+++(Ferric iron),Al+++(Aluminium),Cr+++(Chromium)|

Fourth Group Ni++(Nikil),Co++(Cobalt),Zn++(Zink) And Mn++(Maganese)|

Fifth Group Ba++(Barium),Sr++(Strontium) And Ca++(Calcium)|

Sixth Group Mg++(Magnesium)

Identify The Acid And Basic Radicals in The Given Salt Mixture.

Acidic Radical Test

They are Tested like Alkaline radicals by two methods dry and wet tests. Acidic radicals can be estimated by the dry test but their confirmation is done by the wet test.
Wet tests for acidic radicals are not carried out according to a systematic plan, as in the case of basic bases. The solution of the mixture is made to do the wet test. In this, the acidic radicals of the mixture go in the form of sodium salt. A wet test is done in this only.

Method of preparation of soda extract-

Take 1 part mixture with 3 parts solid anhydrous sodium carbonate in a beaker. Add 15-20 ml distilled water to it and boil for 10-15 minutes.
While heating, the volume of the solution should not be less than 10-15ml, so keep adding distilled water as needed after a while. Filter the solution.
Filtered soda is the extract.
Wash the residue with 2 ml of distilled water and mix the wash with the main filtrate.

Theory

When the mixture is heated with a concentrated solution of sodium carbonate, amphoteric decomposition takes place and the acidic radicals present in the mixture combine with the sodium salt of Na2CO3 (Na+) to form sodium salt.
These salts are soluble in water, so they go into the filtrate when filtered.

First Group

Dil Acid Test 

(Testing For CO3(Carbonate),NO2(Nitrite),S(Sulphide),SO3(Sulfite),CH3COO(Acetate),S2O3(Thio Sulphate)radical )

radical experiment Observation Result
CO3(Carbonate) (1.)Taking the mixture in a test tube, dilute HCl or dilute H2SO4 was added.

Confirmatory test

(2.)The gas coming out of the test tube was passed through the conducting tube into the lime water.
Passed more gas into the milky solution.

Odorless, colorless carbon dioxide gas is released with effervescence.

 

 

 

Lime water turns milky.
The milky color ends.

 

 

 

 

CO3can be |

 

 

CO3–Confirm

 

 

 

SO3(Sulfite) (1)Taking the mixture in a test tube, add dilute HCl or dilute H2SO4 and heat it.

Confirmatory Test

(2)A filter paper moistened with acidified potassium dichromate is brought to the mouth of the test tube.

Colorless, burning sulfur-scented gas

 

 

 

Filter paper turns green.

 

 

SO3(Sulfite)can be.

 

 

 

SO3(Sulfite) Confirm

 

S(Sulphide) (1)Taking the mixture in a test tube, add dilute HCl or dilute H2SO4 and heat it.

Confirmatory Test

(2)A filter paper moistened with LeadAcetate is brought to the mouth of the test tube.

Colorless smells like rotten eggs

 

 

Filter paper turns green or brown

S(Sulphide)can be.

 

 

 

S(Sulphide) Confirm

NO2(Nitrite) (1.)Taking the mixture in a test tube, dilute HCl or dilute H2SO4 was added.

Confirmatory Test

(2)A filter paper moistened with potassium iodide and starch is brought to the mouth of the test tube.

 

Brown-colored and pungent-smelling gas emerges.

 

filter paper turns purple or blue

 

 

NO2(Nitrite) Can Be

 

NO2(Nitrite) Confirm

CH3COO(Acetate) (1)Taking the mixture in a test tube, add dilute HCl or dilute H2SO4 and heat it.

Confirmatory Test

(1)Neutral FeCl3 Sol. is added to the solution

(2) Mixture and solid oxalic acid rubbed on the palm in the presence of two drops of water

smells like vinegar

 

 

 

The color of the solution turns red

 

 

smells like vinegar

CH3COO(Acetate)Can Be

 

 

 

 

CH3COO(Acetate)Confirm

S2O3(Thio Sulphate) (1)Taking the mixture in a test tube, add dilute HCl or dilute H2SO4 and heat it.

Confirmatory Test

(2) 2-3 ml of silver nitrate solution is added to the sodium carbonate extract.

A colorless gas with the odor of burnt sulfur is evolved. The solution turns white at first and then turns yellow.

 

A white precipitate is obtained which turns yellow, orange, brown, and finally black.

S2O3(Thio Sulphate)

 

 

 

 

S2O3(Thio Sulphate)

Identify The Acid And Basic Radicals in The Given Salt Mixture.

Second Group

Conc. Acid Test 

NO3(Nitrate),Cl(Chloride),Br(Bromide),I(Iodide),C2O4(Oxalate),F(Flouride),[Fe(CN)6]—-(Ferrocyanide)

 

Radical experiment Observation Result
NO3(Nitrate) (1.)The mixture and concentrated H2SO4 are heated in a test tube.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Confirmatory test

(1) Copper shavings are put in the test tube.

(2) Ring test is boiled in distilled water and filtered. Mixing fresh ferrous sulfate solution in the filtrate, concentrated H2SO4 is poured slowly along the wall of the test tube

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Light brown-colored gas with a strong odor is released.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gas is released in large quantities.

 

 

A brown-colored ring is formed at the place where both liquids meet.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NO3(Nitrate)can be |

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NO3(Nitrate)Confirm

 

 

 

Cl(Chloride)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The mixture and concentrated H2SO4 are heated in a test tube.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Confirmatory Test

(1) A rod dipped in NH4OH is taken at the mouth of the test tube.

(2)MnO2 is added to the test tube and heated.

(3) Silver nitrate test – AgNO3 solution is added to distilled water or dilute HNO3 solution or sodium carbonate extract neutralized with dilute HNO3.

The white precipitate is dissolved in the NH4OH solution.
(4) Chromyl chloride test – Take the mixture with three times potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) in a dry test tube. Heat by adding concentrated H2SO4.

 

The gas is passed through the NaOH solution and acetic acid and lead acetate are added

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A colorless, pungent odorous gas emanating from concentrated HCl.

 

 

 

White dark smoke is formed.

 

 

 

 

Yellowish-green gas with a strong odor is evolved. A white precipitate is obtained.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

are soluble.

Red-colored gas is released.

 

 

 

 

 

The yellow-colored precipitate is obtained

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cl(Chloride) can be.

 

 

 

Cl(Chloride) Confirm

 

 

Cl(Chloride) Confirm

 

 

 

 

Cl(Chloride) Confirm

Br(Bromide) The mixture and concentrated H2SO4 are poured into a test tube and heated.

Confirmatory Test

The mixture is heated in a test tube with MnO2 and Conc. H2SO4

reddish brown gas with a pungent odor

 

 

 

Reddish brown gas is released in excess

 

Br(Bromide) can be

 

 

 

Br(Bromide) confirm

 

I(Iodide) The mixture and concentrated H2SO4 are poured into a test tube and heated.

Confirmatory Test

put MnO2 in the above test tube

 

Violet vapors are evolved and freeze on the colder parts of the test tube.

 

purple vapors came fast

 

I(Iodide) can be

 

 

I(Iodide) confirm

 

C2O4(Oxalate) Take the mixture and concentrated H2SO4 in a test tube and heat it slowly.
Burning paper is brought to the mouth of the test tube.Confirmatory TestNeutralize 2ml soda extract with acetic acid and remove CO2 by heating. Add CaCl2 solution to it and wait for 2 minutes.
Colorless and odorless gas is released.

 

Paper burns with a blue flame.

 

 

White precipitate appears.

 

 

 

C2O4(Oxalate) can be

 

 

 

C2O4(Oxalate) confirm

 

 

F(Flouride) The mixture and concentrated H2SO4 are poured into a test tube and heated.

Confirmatory Test

Heat the mixture, sand, and concentrated H2SO4 in a dry test tube and bring a glass rod soaked in water to the mouth of the test tube.

white gas with a pungent odor

 

 

 

white precipitate on a glass rod

 

 

F(Flouride) can be

 

 

 

F(Flouride) confirm

 

 

[Fe(CN)6]—-(Ferrocyanide) The mixture is heated with concentrated H2SO4.

Confirmatory Test

Ammonium molybdate is added to the solution with dilute HCl,

A gas burning with a colorless blue flame is obtained.

 

 

a brown precipitate is obtained.

 

[Fe(CN)6]—-(Ferrocyanide) can be

 

 

[Fe(CN)6]—-(Ferrocyanide) confirm

 

Identify The Acid And Basic Radicals in The Given Salt Mixture.

Third Group

PO4(Phosphate),SO4(Sulphate),BO3(Borate)

Radical Experiment Observation Result
Sulphate SO4 BaCl2 solution is added to a solution made in HCl to a dilute or concentrated solution of the mixture.

 

confirmatory test

 

The precipitate is dissolved in Aqua regia or concentrated HNO3.

 

 

The thick white precipitate is obtained.

 

 

 

are insoluble.

Sulphate SO4

can be

 

 

 

 

Sulphate SO4

Confirm

Phosphate PO4 The mixture is heated with Conc. HNO3. Ammonium molybdate solution is added. let’s cooldown A yellow precipitate is obtained. Phosphate PO4 

Confirm

Borate BO3 Take the mixture and ethyl alcohol (1 c.c. or 2 c.c) in a porcelain cup and add concentrated H2SO4.

The solution is heated by stirring it with a glass rod.

Burning paper is brought in contact with the emanating gas.

 

 

The gas burns with a green-colored flame. Borate BO3

Confirm

Identify The Acid And Basic Radicals in The Given Salt Mixture.

Basic Radical Test

Insoluble compounds of basic radicals, such as chlorides, sulfides, hydroxides

and are precipitated in the form of carbonates etc.

All the basic radicals are divided into 6 groups because of their ability to form the above type of compounds.

The properties of the members of each group are similar to each other, that is, they form insoluble compounds with certain specific reagents, which are called group reagents.

Group Basic Radical Group Reagent Specialty of Group
Zero NH4+ NaOH NaOH reaction gives Ammonia salt NH3
First(Silver Group) Pb2+,Ag+,Hg22+ Dil HCl The chlorides of these metals are insoluble in water. The sulphides of these metals are insoluble in dilute HCl.
Second(copper-Arsenic Group) Hg++(Mercuric),Pb++(Lead),Bi+++(Bismuth),Cu++(Copper),Cd++(Cadmium),Sn++(Stanus Tin),Sn++++(Stanic Tin),As+++(Arsenic) And Sb+++(Antimony) H2S in the presence of dilute HCl The hydroxides of these metals are insoluble in water.
Third Group Fe+++(Ferric iron),Al+++(Aluminium),Cr+++(Chromium)| NH4OH in the presence of NH4Cl The sulfides of these metals are insoluble in ammonium solution. The carbonates of these metals are insoluble in ammonium solution.
Fourth Group  Ni++(Nikil),Co++(Cobalt),Zn++(Zink) And Mn++(Maganese)| H2S in the presence of NH4Cl and NH4OH
Fifth Group  Ba++(Barium),Sr++(Strontium) And Ca++(Calcium)| (NH4)2CO3  in the presence of NH4Cl and NH4OH
Sixth Group  Mg++(Magnesium) Na2HPO4 in the presence of NH4Cl,NH4OH and (NH4)2CO3

 

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